Transferring Or Selling Assets Before Filing Bankruptcy

Frequently, individuals ask about giving property away, such as a  car, just before filing a Chapter 7. These transfers not only fail to  help the bankruptcy process, the transfers might be unnecessary with the  right legal advice.


Maybe  an individual has a car worth $15,000 that they do not want to lose if  they file a bankruptcy. They decide to sell the car for just a few  dollars to a relative on the eve of filing a Chapter 7.

The  Bankruptcy Code has a provision that allows Chapter 7 trustees to undo  such transfers and sell the property for the benefit of the estate. It  is called a Fraudulent Conveyance.

A  Chapter 7 trustee can file an Adversary Complaint to bring the property  back to the estate if the trustee can prove certain elements.

  1. On the date of the transfer the Debtor was insolvent: meaning liabilities exceed assets.
  2. The entity filing bankruptcy received less than the equivalent value for the property transferred.
  3. The transfer can be voluntary or involuntary.
  4. The  transfer was within 2 years of filing of the case. However, trustee  often use their own state’s similar law which is often for a larger call  back period. Illinois for example has a 4 year call back period.

The  issue of insolvency can include transfers of property when it is likely  he/she will incur debts beyond one’s ability to repay. An example might  be on the eve of a trial which will likely result in a judgment that  can’t be repaid.

Chapter 7 trustees have  been known to file suit to upset a Divorce judgment where the Debtor  was ordered to transfer property to the former spouse when the trustee  believes that the purpose was to remove the property from reach of  creditors.


There are two types of fraud described in the section covering Fraudulent Conveyances: actual fraud and constructive fraud.

Actual fraud: an actual intent to remove the property from the reach of creditors.  This fraud generally applies when there are suspicious circumstances or  an especially bad relationship with a creditor. The penalty for actual  fraud can result in a denial of discharge and possible criminal charges.

Constructive fraud: the transaction was an unfair exchange: sold a $5,000 asset for $2,000.  The penalty for constructive fraud where the transfer is not listed on  the schedules can also result in a denial of discharge and in certain  cases criminal charges. The chances of such extreme penalties are less  likely when there is only constructive fraud.


There are some other transfers but they mainly relate to Business Debtors.

An  involuntary transfer that can be undone includes a judicial sale  resulting in a sale for much less than the value of the property.

An  exception to the trustee’s ability to undo a transfer is religious or  other charitable contributions up to 15% of the gross income of the  person in the year of the transfer.

Another frequent penalty is the loss of a possible exemption to that asset.

If  one files Chapter 13 all transfers described above must be listed as  assets subject to allowable exemptions. Such transfers can affect the  dividend to general unsecured creditors.


Honesty  is always the best policy. And, if there has been any transfer of  property this should be discussed with your attorney. Here at Robert J.  Adams & Associates we have the experience to give you the best  advice on any transfer you made or are thinking of making.

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